This writeup is very much based on how American history and civics were taught in my primary and secondary education, and does not take into account anything about the historical and political developments of the USSR.
Also I don’t think I understood the difference between allegory and satire.
Also I am critical of American history from an early age; I had a sense that something was wrong but I couldn’t put my finger on it.
It seems that this conflict is between Empirical Britain and the American Colonies. The reason is that not only is it the first successful rebellion in history, but also the fact that soon the Farm turned against its own principles.
The Humans represent not only Britain, but many other European countries, mainly in their maltreatment of their animals and colonies, respectively. They whipped them without any conscience, and are very much surprised when the animals revolted.
Another point to make is the mention of the human’s temporary belief that the animals would never be able to surmount to anything without human assistance, just as empires thought of their colonies.
The Animals represent people in general. Not only diverse in appearance, but also in intellectual talent. George Orwell seems to be a pessimistic person, so naturally most people are very stupid, like the ducks or the cows. The pigs are by far the cleverest, and so the reigns of power immediately go to them.
The Old Mayor symbolizes the ideas of John Locke and of liberation from oppression. He also teaches the song Beasts of England to the animals, that which might represent Common Sense, written by Thomas Paine.
The Old Mayor’s strange dream which starts off this story is a vision of a Utopia of Animal kind, were everything was as good as could be He is also the originator of the hate for Man, the parasitic life form that “consumes without producing” His view of the Humans are creatures of greed. The Old Mayor also forbade the adaptation of human mannerisms, for he saw only evil in them, the indulgences of our foolish race.
Moses the prophet who led his people to the Promised Land. The raven of the same name seems to try to do the same thing, by telling tales of Sugarcandy Mountain, the place were animals go after they die. Moses, being a name derived from a religious work, signifies religion. “The animals hated Moses because he told tales and did no work, but some of them believed in Sugarcandy Mountain, and the pigs had to argue very hard to persuade them there was no such place” This passage lends itself to the “separation of Church and State” in the Constitution.
Boxer and Clover=perfect citizens
Napoleon=Napoleon Bonaparte; greed; corruption
Snowball=purity, better leader, Old Mayor’s vision
Mollie=vanity; lazy upper-class
The Commandments=the Constitution
The differing clubs=Beauracracy
Pigs=ever growing power hunger, except Snowball
Timber sold to other farm=
Mr. Jones=King George III, monarchy
Battle of Cowshed=War of 1812
Snowball vs. Napoleon=Two party system
Windmill=Technological progress (Industrial Revolution)
Napoleon blame of Snowball=McCarthyism
Minimus=Glorification of “the Man”
Mr. Whymper=Foreign trade
The beds in the house=Huge governmental officer wages
Battle of the Windmill=World War I
Pigs’ Alcoholism=Political Corruption
Death of Boxer=Death of the American Dream? Death of morals?
The pigs walking on two legs=class distinction
Final transformation=the failure of Liberty